Guru Teq Bahadar was the 9th Guru of Sikhs from 1665 until he beheaded in 1675. Tyaga Mal, his childhood name, was born in the early hours of 1 April 1621 in Amritsar, Punjab, India, and was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib and Mata Nanki. He had four brothers, Baba Gurditta, Suraj Mal, Ani Rai, Atal Rai, and one sister Bibi Viro. Guru Tegh Bahadur was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib and Bibi Nanki. When born Guru Hargobind Sahib went himself to see the child and uttered.” He shall protect the weak and relieve their distress”.
He came to be known by the name Tegh Bahadur (Mighty of the Sword) from Tyaga Mal , Then he was 10 years old, after Guru Hargobind seen him fighting with his valor in his 4th battle against the Mughals in Kartarpur Sahib. After that Guru Hargobind Sahib shifted to Keertpur Sahib for parchar and parsar of Sikhism.
Teq Bahadur was brought up in the approved Sikh style, placed under the teaching of Bhai Gurdas and Baba Budha Ji, spiritual education from Bhai Gurdas and shshtar vidya archery and horsemanship from Bhai Budha Ji. He was also taught the old classics such as the Vedas , the Upnashids, and the Puranas .
Amritsar at that time was the center of the Sikh faith. As the seat of the Sikh Gurus , and with its connection to Sikhs in far-flung areas of the country through the chains of Masands or missionaries, it had developed the characteristics of a State capital. Guru Teq Bahadar Ji was of mystic temperament and spent most of his time in seclusion and contemplation, quite humble and devoid of all ambitions.
Guru Teq Bahadur was a father favorite son and used to visit him occasionally but with great respect and humility. Most of the time Teg Bahadar was in meditation. Mother was worried and often complained to Guru Hargobind Sahib and Mata Nanki that neither he takes any interest in doing household work which he should, nor he meet or keeps track of Masands, even then he is treated much more affectionately than rest of the children. Guru Hargobind Sahib tried to sooth and told her,” what could I see and forseek in him in future tried to unlock the mystery for you. Teg Bahadar can suffer what none other can, His forbearance is unsurpassed and he master of many virtues. None else is there like him in the world. He will be mighty of limb, take part in many battles, excels in both valour and compassion and will bring fame to the house of Guru Nanak.
When he was eight years old , he was married to Mata Gujri in Amritsar on 3rd February 1632 to Mata Gujri. Bhai Santokh Singh said.’ Teg Bahadar was with most splendid looks, tall like his father, handsome as the moon, long limbed and broad chest. Mata Gujri was worthy of Guru Teq Bahadar in every way.
At the age of 10 Guru teq Bahadar fought 4th battle of Kartarpu Sahib and won. After that Guru Hargobind Sahib went to kiratpur Sahib as his mission was not to fight with Moughal but to expand Sikhi parchar and parsar as much as he can. When his time came near, Guru Hargobind Sahib asked Mata Nanki to go and live in Bakale. In the 1640, nearing his death, Guru Hargobind sent his wife Nanaki to his ancestral village of Bakala in Amritsir District , together with Tegh Bahadur and Mata Gujri . Bakala was then a prosperous town with many beautiful pools, wells, and baolis. After Guru Hargobind’s death, Tegh Bahadur continued to live in Bakala with his wife and mother. Guru Har Rai the eldest son was given Gurgadi. Guru Teq Bahadar Ji was in Bakale when heard the jyoti jot of Guru Har Rai after giving gurgadi to Guru Har Krishan.
In March 1664, Guru Harkrishan Ji became serious after contracting smallpox . When asked by his followers who would lead them after him, he replied Baba Bakala, meaning his successor , Baba is in Bakala. Taking advantage of the ambiguity in the words of the dying Guru, many installed themselves in Bakala, claiming themselves as the new Guru. Sikhs were puzzled to see so many claimantsLabana gifted Tegh Bahadur the usual offering of two gold coins. Teg Bahadur gave him his blessings and remarked that his offering was considerably short of the promised five hundred. Makhan Shah Labana forthwith made good the difference and ran upstairs. He so excited to find the Guru that he began shouting from the rooftop, “Guru ladho re, Guru ladho re” meaning “I have found the Guru, I have found the Guru”.
In August 1664, a Sikh Sangat arrived in Bakala and appointed Tegh Bahadur as the ninth guru of Sikhs. After the the execution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji execution , according to Miri Piri Guru Teg Bahadur was surrounded by armed bodyguards. But He himself lived an austere life.
Guru Tegh Bahadur traveled extensively in different parts of the country, including Dhakka and Assam, to preach the teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Sikh guru. During his travels, Guru Tegh Bahadur spread the Sikh ideas and message, as well as started community water wells and langars (community kitchen charity for the poor). He also paid three successive visit to Kiratpur through Majha, Malva and Bangar. In Bilaspur, Rani Champa given him warm welcome and suggested him to buy a peace of land in her state to make his residence for Rs.500. Guru Teq Bahadar Ji developed this village as Chak-Nanki later called Anandpur Sahib.
Aurangzeb thought to first convert Brahmins and Educated class of Kashmir and after that it will be easier to convert rest of community following them. Kashmir Pandits tried Raja Maharajas ,leaders, powerful persons but non of them tried to go against Moughals. So ultimately they came to sought help to Guru Teg Bahadar Sahib. Guru Sahib suggested them to find your leader who is true Brahmin, who can sacrifice and tell Aurangzeb that if he is able to convert him we all will become Muslims ourselves, and for that ask for six month time. Gobind singh Ji was playing there and listening everything,’ He said ,’ਤੁਹਾਡੇ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਮਹਾਂਪੁਰਸ਼ ਹੋਰ ਕੋਣ ਹੋਵੇਗਾ ” Guru Sahib smiled and looked at his son. He said immediately tell Aurangzeb that if u convert Guru Teg Bahadar, we all will become Muslims.Take six months time from him. Aurangzeb thought it is not difficult to convert one person ,so he agreed. The . With no intention to convert himself , he left for Delhi to defend the Hindus before Aurangzeb. He was escorted with five Sikhs to Delhi and confined to the fortress in the city. While in prison he was given the opportunity to accept Islam with so many offers but he refused to convert himself.
Aurangzeb, ordered the Guru to embrace Islam or perform a miracle so we can see that you are Ruhani person. The emperor promised great rewards if Tegh Bahādur did either but death if the Guru refused. Rejecting earthly honors and maintaining that he did not fear death, the Guru refused both options. Accepting the death sentence, he recited the Japjī (the most important Sikh scripture) and was decapitated in one blow by the executioner. A loyal Sikh took the Guru’s head back to Anandpur Sahib . According to tradition, another loyal Sikh took the body back to his home and cremated it; a Sikh shrine, Gurdwārā Rakābgunj, marks the spot of the cremation.
No document is mentioned with his direct conflict with the power. But like predecessors he maintained worldly dignity of Sikhism. His teachings and his prolonged travel across the country, created new energy and environment for Sikh living . He was sensitive to the people suffering and considered a principled and fearless warrior. He was a learned spiritual scholar and a poet. His works include 116 shabads, and 15 ragas, and his bhagats are credited with 782 compositions that are part of bani in Sikhism. His works are included in the Guru Granth Sahib (pages 219–1427).They cover a wide range of topics, such as the nature of God, human attachments, body, mind, sorrow, dignity, service, death, and deliverance.