Guru Gobind Singh is the tenth and last of the ten human Gurus of Sikhism. He is one of the most fascinating, remarkable, and colorful personalities in the history of India. A divine messenger, a warrior, a poet, a philosopher, and creator of Khalsa Panth with the institution of the Khalsa fraternity. He is variously revered as Sarbans Dani, Mard Agamra, Shah-e-Shahenshah (emperor of emperors), Bar do Alam Shah (ruler of both worlds). Throughout the annals of human history, there was no other individual who could be of a more inspiring personality than Guru Gobind Singh. At its climax, the tenth Nanak infused the spirit of both sainthood and the undauntedness in the minds and hearts of his followers to fight oppression in order to restore justice, righteousness (Dharma) and to uplift the down-trodden people in this world.
We see him first as a little boy of just 9 years to suggest his father fight for the cause of Kashmiri Pandits. We see him as an adult with a multifaceted, many splendoured personalities as a warrior of exemplary valor, skilled in the use of all weapons of the day, keen and intuitive grasp and understanding of the art of warfare, a keen military strategist and general of par excellence, an excellent leader as well as administrator, a linguist with outstanding command on Urdu, Farsi, Arabic and Punjabi, a poet of tremendous ability, who could move you to tears and rouse you to take-up a sword, and great musician who composed soul-stirring and heart-rendering melodies.
(W, L. McGregor) writes about him
“If we consider the work which Guru Gobind Singh accomplished, both in reforming his religion and instituting a new code of law for his followers, his personal bravery under all circumstances; his persevering endurance amidst difficulties, which would have disheartened others and overwhelmed them in inextricable distress, and lastly his final victory over his powerful enemies by the very men who had previously forsaken him, we need not be surprised that the Sikhs venerate his memory. He was undoubtedly a great man.”
It was December 1666, A splendid Divine Light shone in the darkness of the night. Pir Bhikan Shah a Muslim mystic performed his prayers in that Easterly direction (instead of towards the West, contrary to his daily practice), and guided by this Divine Light, he traveled with a group of his followers until he reached Patna Sahib in Bihar.
It was here that Gobind Rai was born to Mata Gujri, mehil of Guru Teg Bahadar in 1666. It is said that Pir Bhikan Shah approached the child with two bowls of milk and water, signifying both the great religions of Hinduism and Islam of that time with the intention to know that he will be for Hindus or Muslims. The child smiled and placed his hands on both bowls. The Pir bowed in utter humility and reverence to the new Prophet of all humanity.
When Guru Gobind Singh was born, guru Teq Bhadur Sahib was away on a long tour of Assam and Bengal for Sikhi Parchar and Parsar. When he got the news, he sent hukamnama to Sikhs to take care of Mata Gujri and the child and sent a message to Mata Gujri to name the child, Gobind Rai.
Gobind Rai, from birth till he was five and half years stayed under the protection and care of Mata Gujri and Mama Kirpal. Basic education, Gurmukhi, and Bihari, he had learned from Patna, Bihar. Since his childhood he had typical fantasies, much different from other children, like playing martial games, mock fights, aiming gulel, bow and arrow, boating in Ganga river, and discuss Fauzi tactics among his friends in different situations. He was also fond of breaking vessels ( ghadhe) of poor people who used to fetch water from the well, just for the sake that when they go to Mata Gujri to complain, she will give them a lot of money which used to improve their financial conditions.
People with intellect and spiritual mind think of him as Rabi -Noor Pandit Shiv Das used to love him so much that whenever he was in meditation, Gobind Rai slowly go and used to sit in his lap and says” ਪੰਡਤ ਜੀ ਝਾਤ “. pandit use to love his gesture rather than getting angry. Nawab Kreem and Nawab Raheem who were disciples of Guru Teq Bhadur used to love Gobind like their own child and had registered one village and two gardens in the name of Gobind Rai.
In 1675, All of a sudden Guru teg Bhadur has decided to come back to Anandpur Sahib. He was so much in a hurry that he could not even drop in the way to see his child. It may be due to the sudden start of the atrocities of Aurangzeb on Hindus to please fanatic Muslims with whose help he secured his throne after killing all his brothers and house-arresting his father Shah Jahan in Red Fort of Agra.
Guru Teg Bahadur reached back to Anandpur Sahib after seven years. He called back his family Mata Gujri and Gobind Rai to Anandpur Sahib from Patna. Gobind Rai has left so many memories in Patna, his childhood friends, the inhabitants of Patna who used to love him so much, like pandit Shiv Dutt, Nawab Kreem, Nawab Raheem, Raja Fateh Chand Maini, and his wife, and many more, who were so happy and excited to have him around them. Raja Fateh Chand had no child. One day his Rani was in meditation and praying to God for the blessing her son, All of sudden Gobind Rai came and sat in her lap calling,” Mother I have come”.From that day, she was taking Gobind Rai as her own child with no desire to have her own son. Raja and Rani both used to love him so much that her home has become like a Gurudwara where everyday langar of chole poori was prepared for Gobind Rai and his friends and they used to eat and enjoy it like anything.
Iinhabitants of Patna gave Gobind Rai and the family a cordial farewell with tears. They traveled via Danapur, Buxer, Chhota Mirza, Prag, Thanesar, and via Saharanpur reached Lukhnor and met peer Bheekhan Shah. From there they went to Keertpur, where they met uncle Sooraj Mal’s grand Children, went for darshan of Gurudwaras that belongs to Guru Har Rai Sahib and Guru Hargobind Sahib. When they reached near Anandpur Sahib, the people of Anandpur Sahib came to receive them with great enthusiasm. Everybody was overjoyed and celebrated it as if it was Diwali. Gobind Rai met his father Guru Teg Bhadur Sahib with great enthusiasm, love, and warmth.
This time was the only secure and happy time which was full of joy and mauj masti , without any tention under the protection of Mata Gujri, Guru Teq Bahadar Sahib, his maternal uncle (Mama) Kirpal, and thousands of sikhs who loved to see him around. Guru Teg Bahadur had made arrangment of Pundit Munshi Sahib chand, Molvi peer Muhammad, and Bhai ji to teach him hindi, farsi, urdu, sanskrit, Punjabi besides shshtr vidya, teer andazi, ghod swari, and other fauzi tactics.
By this time atrocities of Moughal Hkoomt were at the peak. Aurangzeb, who was applying force to convert hindus, has changed his policy and thought that changing the religion of each and every person is rather difficult. It will be easieir to target the leaders of the masses first and then the rest of the hindus will automatically follow them. With this policy in mind he has sent hukmnama to Iftiar Khan to target kashmiri Pundits. As per hukmnama, he started targeting the most educated class, Kashmiri Brahmins. Their leader Pundit Kirpa Ram reguested Iftiar Khan to give him at least 6 month time to think about it and after that we all, including our communiy will convert to Islam. This plan was very much suited to Iftiar Khan as well as Auranzeb.
Under the leadership of Pandit Kirpa Ram, they tried help from every nook and corner, Raje Maharajas, pujari of temples, leaders of the states, but none of them supported. Pundit Kirpa Ram once taught Guru Gobind Rai and knew that Anandpur Sahib is the only place from where we will get a solution to our problem. So They went and discussed their problem with Guru Teq Bahadar. As the Guru sat reflecting what to do, young Gobind Rai, arriving there in company with his playmates, asked why he looked so preoccupied. The father replied,
“Grave are the burdens the earth bears. She will be redeemed only if a truly worthy person comes forward to lay down his head. Distress will then be expunged and happiness ushered in.””None could be worthier than you to make such a sacrifice,” remarked Gobind Rai in his innocent manner.He looked at Gobind Roy with concerned eyes and immediately decided and advised the brahmins to return to their village and tell the authorities that they would accept Islam if Guru Tegh Bahadur could first be persuaded to do so.
When Aurangzeb got this news -Guru’sympathy with Kashmiri Pandits which was an obstruction in his Islamic policy and kind of a revolt against it . He underhand issued a Shahi Furman to arrest Guru Teg Bhadur which was followed by Second Furman to cut him into pieces and put on all the gates of Delhi to create terror, so nobody could dare to reject and go against the wishes of Delhi Hkoomt.
Soon afterwards, the Guru Teq Bhadur Sahib left for Agra with a few followers to back-up the people and do Sikhi Parchar which was, “na daro na drao” and advising people to remain calm even in adverse conditions. In the midway, he sent all the sangat back to their homes and proceeded to the imperial capital, Agra, only with Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das, and Bhai Dayala who desired to remain with Guru Sahib. Guru Teg Bahadar was arrested on 12 July 1675 near Ropar, taken to Sirhand where they held in the custody of Wazir Khan, and from here, Guru sahib with his three followers were taken in iron cages like prisoners to Delhi, where they lodged in cells attached to Kotwali in Chandni Chowk. For three months to pursuaded by Kazi, Mullah, and even the emperor himself to accept Islam as his religion.
First of all, three of His followers were asked to convert them into Islam and were tortured and murdered after they did not bent before any greed or fear given by the Moughals. Bhai Mati Das was cut into two pieces after tieying him between two poles, Bhai Sati Das was put in the folds of cotton and was put on fire and Bhai Dayala was put into boiling Deg. All three of them became shaheed peacefully by uttering Wheguru Satnam. They thought that after watching the tortured deaths of three of his followers he will change his mind, but he as well, refused to convert himself and was beheaded on November 11, 1675, at the circular road of Kotwali, Chandni Chowk, Delhi.
Daroga was looking at the public reaction who was standing there in stunned silence and said that whosoever will not obey the emperor.s order will be met with same consequences. He instructed people not to touch the body of Guru and let it be exposed for 48 hours, to be eaten by vultures and dogs. But nature had its own ways. The breeze which had begun to blow and rustle the leaves now picked up strength became a wind which is getting stronger and stronger, blowing everything before it.The sun which had burnt so fiercely down upon the earth, was now covered with a dark haze and Delhi was soon in the middle of one of the severest strom, it had ever experienced. Everyone including Guards , feeling the severity of strom retreated into the safety of Kotwali and waited for the strom to abate.
Bhai Lakhi Shah Vanjara and Bhai Jaita planned to pick- up body of Guru Sahib from Chandni Chowk Bhai jaita ji took guru’sees to Anandpur Sahib and Lakhi shah Vanjara took Guru,s body loaded in the bales of cotton to his home, made pyre and put his house on fire with all his belongings to make it accidental fire, so no body can link it with Guru Teg Bhadur Sahib.
It is said that after the martyrdom , when the sees of Guru Tegh Bahadur was handed over to Gobind Rai , He asked Bhai Jaita,’ was there no sikh where my father was beheaded , Bhai Jaita Ji said ,” I do not know, there may be but cant be recoganised” . On that day Guru Gobind Singh Ji had decided that he would create such a Panth who could be recoganised among the crowd of millions and would challenge the tyrant rulers in every walk of life to restore justice, equality and peace for all of mankind.
Shheedi of Guru Teg Bhadar affected people so much so that even the people who have done felt broken. Kazi who has given ftwa to kill guru sahib committed suicide.within 20 days. Abdulla who has kept Guru Teg Bahadar in jail and tortured him, ran away from jail,to Anandpur Sahib with family, the same night and asked Guru Gobind Sahib to punish him for what he did . but in Sikhism who so ever come with remorse was pardoned not punished .He and his family stayed and served in Anandpur Sahib for 100 years, treating Sikhs as he was a hakeem by profession Third was Jallaludeen who was punished by Baba Banda Bahadur. By this time Sikhs became brave and daring enough to take revenge. Two Sikhs stonned Aurangzeb while he was siting in a boat in Shahanabad, and attacked him with sword when he was coming down from the stairs of Jama Masjid.
After shheedi of Guru Teg Bahar, Gobind Rae was just nine yeasr old at the time of attaining gurgadi. Ram Kuir,from family of Baba Budha ji completed the rasam and entrusted him with much more responsibilities just at the tender age of nine years. There was no doubt that so many Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims were supporting him, but there was no derth of enemies too, like Dheermal and family, phadi raje, suba sirhind, Nakhshbandi who were anti guru-dom since Guru Arjun Dev Ji and Aurangzeb himself as well.
Guru Gobind Singh got married at the age of 11 to Mata Jito the daughter of Harijan Subhikhi ( Bhikhia ) from Basantgaṛh, Lahore on 21st June 1677. It was an ideal marriage as they had grown together into adulthood with an element of deep friendship. Mata Jito had a strong bond of love with Mata Gujri also. As the years passing by, she had developed a great longing to have the baby cry in the house. After a long wait of 8 years, One day she had begged Guru to remarry, which Guru Sahib had refused as Mata Jito was a very good wife, a devoted daughter -in law. With the help of Mata Gujri, she became successful in convincing Guru Sahib to remarry which he did at the age of 17. At the age of 34, He married Mata Sahib Devan daughter of a devoted Sikh of Guru Gobind Singh who has committed in Ardas that he will give his first child in the service of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, which was known to his daughter Sahib Devan as well as Sikh Sangat of Rohtas. When she grew up she had refused to marry anybody else except Guru Sahib. He with Sangat of Rohtas requested Guru Sahib to marry her as she declared that she will not marry anybody else. After a long request of Sangat of Rohtas and her father, Guru sahib agreed on the condition that she can stay in mahil as a kwara dola. She and her brother Sahib Chand served in Mahil throughout their life .Though she had accepted by Guru Sahib as a Kwara dola in Mahil but she had an influential role in Sikhism as Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed her as the Mother of the Khalsa.
Through the blessings of Guru Tegh Bahadur, Raja Ram of Assam was blessed with a son. Raja wanted to take his son to the Guru but he died soon and could not visit Anandpur. Before his death, he instructed Rani that the prince should be brought up as a devout Sikh which she faithfully carried out his wish. When Rattan Rai, the prince, attained the age of twelve, he felt an inclination to see the Guru. Accordingly, he with his mother and several of his ministers proceeded to Anandpur. He brought with him an offering of five horses with golden trappings, a very small elephant, and a weapon out of which five sorts of arms could be made, a pistol, a sword, a lance, a dagger, and a club. They remained at Anandpur for five months, Finally, He was sent off with presents as well as the jewel of Nam Simran.
Surging crowds of people with their hearts filled with love and devotion to the Master thronged to see him from Kabul, Qandahar, Gazni, Balkh, and Bukhara. They brought several priceless gifts- rugs, carpets, shawls, and other valuables when they came to pay homage to their Lord. Duni Chand, one of the devotees, visited Anandpur in 1681 brought an expensive Chandani, studded with Jewells. beads and with golden embroidery, very expensive and much more beautiful than the Chandni of Moughal Badshah, Aurangzeb.
By this time Moughal Hakoomt has surpassed all the limits of doing atrocities on non-muslims. Rajas and Maharajas had their selfish end and were least concerned with their riyat. When Guru Gobind Singh ji had taken over the responsibility of infusing social equality in the people, Phadi rajas has created much more difficulties and obstructions in his way, even much more than Moughals
Now Guru Sahib anaysing the situation sent Hukmname to Sikh Sangat to give bheta not in cash but in kinds of shshtr, horses, elephant and clothes for his army . He kept 52 kavis in his darbar, whom Aurangzeb, after putting ban on rag-rang, terminated their services . Many jawans which went back to their homes during Guru Hargobind Sahib and Guru Harkrishan Sahib came back to serve guru sahib with no demand but just two times meal and one set of clothes in a six months . There are other so many muslims,hindu , sikhs and people from low caste came to serve him. He himself started dressing like a king, wore arms and kalgi. He induced his followers to practise archery and musket- shooting, do muscle-developing exercises and strenuous sports as part of the program of physical culture.
When Bhim chand came to know the activities of Guru Gobind Singh, he became furious. Just to see himself what was happening in Guru Darbar. , he came himself to meet Guru Sahib on the pretext of having Darshan. Bim Chand was received in Guru’s darbar (court) with great honor under the Chandni just to give honor (mehman Niwazi), To give him due respect ,Guru Sahib had shown all exclusive gifts, he recieved from sikh sangat. Bhim Chand was astonished at the magnificence of the Kabuli Chandni and other gifts. When the beautifully decorated elephant was let forward, Bhim Chand stood spellbound and expressed his unbounded admiration though his mind burned with jealousy of the Guru’s state and wealth and started thinking that these things should be in my possestion rather than being with a faqueer and from that very moment he made up his mind to take possession of the elephant and Kabuli Chandni
After a few days Bhim Chand sent his emissaries thrice with a message to Guru Sahib that he desired to borrow the elephant and chandni to display during the engagement of his son to impress the guests. Guru Sahib knew his mal-intentions. He sent the reply to Bhim Chand,” This was a gift from our sangat given with great love and affections, I cant give it to anyone else. Bhim Chand got annoyed and sent a letter.” Either you send us the things I asked and accept our supermacy,otherwise vacate Anandpur Sahib -If both the conditions are not accepted, be ready for War. Guru Sahib replied,” We are under the supermacy of wahiguru only. Niether we fear from anyone nor we make anybody fear. As far as Anandpur is concerned its land was bought by our father. So question does not arise of vacating it. But in case you are bent upon fighting without reason, we are ready to fight to save our dignity, families of our near and dear ones to carry out our moral duty. If the suitation demands, “When all other means have failed, It is but lawful to take to the sword.” (verse 22) After this, he had distributed goli sikka to all his jawans and got prepared for the war.
GURU LEAVES FOR PAUNTA SAHIB
In the meantime the Raja Medani Parkash of Nahan, invited the Guru to visit him. Mata Gujri insisted that for the time being, to avoid the situation better go to Paonta Sahaib. Guru Sahib could not avoid , what Mata Gujri said.The invitation was accepted and he left for Nahan. Raja of Nahn knew about the happenings between Guru Sahib and Raja of Kehloor. He requested Guru Sahib,” this whole of Nahan State territory is yours , where ever you would like to stay, your palace to live will be made within no time”.. The Guru erected a tent on the beautiful place on the bank of the the river Yamuna and held a darbar there.. Medni Prakash made a palace for guru sahib and a fort as well for the protection of his army and filled with everything that is required within a short time. The Guru named it Paunta, and started to live there. After coming in Paonta guru Sahib’s fauj have became much more powerful. Guru Sahib’s own shano-shokat was much more than the rajas. His give and take was also costliest. The presents He sent to the daughter of Feteh chand during her marriage, out of them one necklace was more than one lakh.
The Guru’s army was swelling day by day and he was now the time to set for the construction of a big beating drum which was deemed necessary to enthuse his army. In those days, only an independent chieftain was to use such a drum that too within the limits of his territory. The beating of the drum within the bounds of another chief’s domain was an hostile act and meant an open invitation of war.Ranjit Nagara of Guru Sahib , when beaten, sounds like a thunder to the hillmen who became apprehensive of some danger.
Peer Budhu Shah brought 500 soldiers which were terminated from the Aurangzeb army under the protection of Guru Sahib. Mahant Kirpal also brought 500 udasi sadhus with him. There are so many other people young and old who had no work came under the protection of Guru Sahib. Aurangzeb banned rag-rang and terminated all poets who made guru ghar as their place to live. Guru Sahib used to held daily poetic sbhavan ,Dewan , exchange of new ideas and also used to play fighting games. He engaged 52 poets to translate the Hindu epics, stories of ancient heroes into Punjabi in order to create the martial spirit among the Sikhs. Much of Guru Gobind Singh’s creative literary work was done at Paonta on the banks of the River Yamuna. Here he wrote several compositions including Jaap Sahib, Akal Ustat and Sawayas. He also established a Gurdwara at Paonta Sahib on the banks of the river Jamna.
Poetry as such was, however, not his aim. For him it was a means of revealing the divine principle and concretizing a personal vision of the Supreme Being. Through his poetry, he preached love and equality and a strictly ethical and moral code of conduct. He preached the worship of the One Supreme Being, deprecating idolatry and superstitious beliefs and observances. The glorification of the sword itself which he eulogized as Bhagauti was never meant as a symbol of aggression, but was the emblem of manliness and self-respect and was to be used only in self-defence, as a last resort.
The date of Bhim Chand “son marriage was settled with the daughter of Fateh Shah of Garhwal. Guru Sahib was also invited by Fateh Shah of Garhwal on her daughter,s marriage. Guru Sahib decided not to attend the ceremony himself but sent costly gifts for the princess through Bhai Nand Lal. Bhim Chand came with his army through Paonta Sahib with Barat which included phadi rajas , their fauz, as well as his fauz. Guru Sahib did not allow him to pass through his place as he can forseek his mal intentions. Bhim Chand requested that other way is very legthy and we could not reach in time before mahoorat . Guru sahib only allowed his son and other few close relatives. The rest of the party including Bhim Chand had to follow a circuitous route to Srinagar, the capital of Garhwal state. This made Bhim Chand very angry and he began to look forward to the opportunity to give vent to his anger.
When the marriage ceremony was over,Bhim Chand instigated Feteh Shah to declare war against Guru Sahib. Fateh Shah was not ready for this but Bhim Chand threatened him that they will not accept (doli) his daughter. He told Fateh Shah with other rajas Kirpal of Katoch, Gopal of Guler, Hari Chand of Hadur and the Raja of Jaswal to attack the Guru on their way back. The army of 15 rajas under the leadership pf Fateh Shah declared war with no reasons. It was first battle in the life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji where everybody, hindu, muslim and sikhs have given their blood.
THE BATTLE OF BHANGANI
On 18th september 1688, battle between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and Phadi Rajas was fought in Bhangani a small village on the right bank of the River Yamuna about 11 km from Paonta Sahib in Sirmur district of Himachal Pradesh. It was the first time to see, 22-year-old Guru Sahib, seen commanding an army in the battle. The Pathans, who came with the recommendations of Pir Budhu Shah watching scanty resources at the disposal of the Guru Sahib in comparison to army of Phadi rajas , they all except Kale Khan with one hundred men, deserted the Guru at the eleventh hour, and joined the hill Rajas. The Udasi Sadhus except their chief Mahant Kirpal, also took to their heels.
After this situation rest of the army also got discouraged . Guru Sahib tookover the command and given a revolutionary speech saying,” Comrades why you have become worried, we are fighting not depending on strenth of the army but with the strenth of Akal Purkh, who is with us,and it is certain that we are going to win, but even then if any body have doubt in His power, who is coward or weak, can leave the battlefield and go without any hesitation . As far as I am concerned. I am not going to go back and fight till my last breath as I am fighing against injustice, torture, atrocites of the wrong doers..
When Pir Budhu Shah came to know this, he himself with his brother, four sons and seven hundred disciples brought at the dispossal of Guru Sahib.The five sons of Bibi Viro- Sango Shah, Jit Mal, Gopal Chand, Ganga Ram and Mohri Chand organized the attack backed by Bhai Daya Ram, Dewan Nand Lal, Guru’s uncle Kirpal and Mahant Kirpal. The battle fought on 18 September 1688. . A severe and bloody battle was raged. Many brave soldiers were killed on both sides but the war ended in favour of the Sikhs. The Guru went to the site where lay the dead bodies of Sangho Shah, Jit Mal and other brave Sikhs. Two sons of Budhu Shah were also killed. The Guru ordered the slain on both sides be disposed off with great honor. The bodies of the Sikhs were cremated, of the Hindus thrown into the river and of the Muslims buried with all solemnity. Pir Budhu Shah when met Guru Sahib after the battle, Guru was combing his hairs. Guru Sahib did ask him ,” You have done such a great job, let me give you anything you ask as shukrana. Budhu Shah begged to give him the comb with his loose hair as a sacred souvenir. The Guru gave him the turban, the comb with hair and a small sword which are still with the generation of Pir Budhu Shah and some money for the families of his disciples who died on the battlefield.
The victory in the battle of Bhangani was of far reaching importance. It uplifted the spirit and strengthened the moral of the Sikhs. Since the Guru did not acquire even an inch of the territory or gained any material advantage, his fame spread far and wide with the result that the supply of arms and horses to the Guru increased abundantly and hundreds and hundreds of persons offered themselves to be enlisted in his army.
The Guru’s victory also did not go without causing concern to the Mughal rule at Delhi. The hilly Rajas also viewed the whole situation afresh. But this time Rajas were goaded by their self-interest of thwarting the Mughals over lordship and thus to be relieved of the burdens of payment of annual tributes to the Mughal Emperor, wanted cordial relations with the Guru. Therefore, their leader Raja Bhim Chand entered into a peaceful agreement and begged sorry for the past happenings. .
While Guru Sahib was in Paonta, he heard a lot of complaints against Masands, who were representatives of Sikh Sangat land tithe collectors from Sikhs living far and wide, started misusing their power and started looting poor Sikhs and extracting tithe by force and misappropriated the collections. Guru Gobind Singh issued directions to Sikh Sangat’s in different parts not to acknowledge masands anymore He sent hukmnama to Sikh Sangat to send their offerings directly to Anandpur Sahib without any intermediaries.
Paonta is near Dehradoon, the estate of Ram Rai given by Aurangzeb, where he continued to live since Guru Har Rai Sahib has disowned him. Here Ram Rai claimed himself as the real Guru and continually tried to harm the cause of the Sikhs. Now since Guru Gobind Singh had come to Paunta, which was only thirty miles away from Dehradoon, Ram Rai became afraid of him and could not muster the courage to face him. Hearing on Ram Rai’s anxiety, Guru Sahib reassured him through message and asked him to meet. A meeting between the Guru and Ram Rai took place in a ferry in the middle of the stream. Ram Rai requested Guru Sahib to take care of his family after his death. It is said that Ram Rai while he was in trance, was cremated by his masands. The Guru then responded to the request of Punjab Kaur and meted out strict punishment to the guilty masands.
Return to Anandpur Sahib from Paonta Sahib
Now Guru Sahib understood that the war of Bhangani is the first battle but not the least. After the Bhangani war he had to fight a chain of battles, some with Phadi rajas others with moughal hkoomat, and Nawab of Sirhind as well. Guru Sahib thought that Paonta Sahib is not the right place for the safety of his Sikhs, so he decided to pack up and go back to Anandpur Sahib. After three years at Paonta Sahib, he ordered his army to retreat to Anandpur. They left Paonta Sahib via Sadhora and met Pir Budhu Shah and his wife for condolence, went to Raipur in response to the invitation of the Raipur Rani. After this he continued his journey to Anandpur and passing through Toda, Nada, Dhakoli, Kotla, Ghanaula, Bunga, Kiratpur reached Anandpur in October 1687. Since hilly Rajas were busy obliging Moughal Hkoomt Guru Sahib had enough time to reorganize his army. He started an arms factory at Anandpur in order to manufacture swords and lances needed for his soldiers and built five forts for their safety.
- Anandgarh Fort
- Lohgarh Fort
- Fatehgarh Fort
- Holgarh Fort
- Kesgarh Fort
In 1670 Aurangzeb was fighting in Deccan for the last eight years with Marathas and become bankrupt. He was in dire need of food and clothes for his vast army which he was compensating by levying heavy taxes on northeastern subas . He sent a message to all the subedars that without delay you collect taxes from the subas and send me which phadi rajas never wanted to pay. In one way Guru sahib was also anti about lagan as it was levied only on Hindus Phadi Rajas saw a good opportunity to make up the relations with Guru Sahib, begged sorry for the past happenings, and requested him to join them on this issue against hkoomat.
March 1691 on the left bank of Beas river, combined fauz of Guru Sahib and Phadi Rajas had a tough fight with the fauz of Alaf Khan, who came to collect khiraj from phadi rajas. Alaf Khan could not sustain his courage and left the battlefield. Rajas and Guru Sahib won the battle. Bhim Chand came to Anandpur Sahib with many valuable gifts for Guru Sahib. When Subedar of Lahore got the news of the defeat of Alaf Khan, he sent his son Rustam Khan, When his army reached the battlefield crossing the river, Fauz of Guru Sahib shouted Jaikaras in such a loud voice with shooting guns in the air, that the enemy thought better to run off than fighting and being killed. The battle was ended before starting. Now came Hussaini, son of Dilawar Khan with a heavy army to attack Anandpur Sahib. In the way, they looted phadi rajas, beaten them mercilessly. They became so much afraid of them, agreed to pay lagan and join him against Guru Sahib. But over some clash regarding the amount of Lagan and they killed each other. When Dilawar Khan heard about the death of Hussaini , he sent a big army, under the leadership of Rajpoot Zuzhar Singh, who was also killed in the fight and shahi saina ran towards Lahore.
When Aurangzeb heard about the defeats of Alaf Khan, Dilawar Khan and Hussaini , he became worried about the present situation and about Lagan which Pahadi Rajas did not pay for years. He sent his son Muazzam , who later became Emperor as Bhadur Shah. to suppress unrest in Punjab and to collect lagan , Now all the Rajas paid lagan with folded hands. Bahadur Shah who heard a lot about Guru Sahib established peaceful relations with him.
Creation of Khalsa
One day guru sahib invited brahmins to lunch to test them whether they are true brahmins. He divided his Langar into two pandals, one for non-vegetarian and another for vegetarians, and fixed two mohars for vegetarians and five for non-vegetarians as dakhshna. Many Brahmins in the greed of five mohrs went to the Non-vegetarian side. Guru Sahib appreciated Brahmins as true brahmins, who were on the vegetarian side, bowed before them. They become happy and suggested to Guru Sahib that if you sidh Devi by doing havan, You will win every where. Just to make them aware of pakhands, Guru Sahib agreed. He has given them money as much as they wanted for havan. For Nine months they continued putting ahuti in havan but no Devi came out. One day Guru sahib took out his sword from mian and said,”This is the devi who will fight against the zulm. From that, It became talvar as “Pritham Bhagauti”.and it was given first place in his Ardas.
ਅਸਿ ਕਿਰਪਾਨ ਖੰਡੋ ਖੜਗ ਤੁਪਕ ਤਬਰ ਅਰੁ ਤੀਰ
ਸੈਫ਼ ਸਰੋਹੀ ਸੈਹ੍ਬੀ ਇਹੈ ਹਮਾਰੇ ਪੀਰ 11
The year 1699 appears to have been most important and Crucial both in Guru’s life as well as in the history of Sikhs. This momentous year saw the birth of Khalsa the most turning point in the evolution of Sikh faith. For Vaiskhi day, Guru Sahib sent hukmnanas to all the Sikhs that this Vaisakhi is going to be a very special day. Sangat got very much excited to read Hukamnama in Guru Sahib’s own handwriting. It seemed like the whole of Punjab was on the move after receiving Hukmnama. They came from all parts of the country to Anandpur Sahib to see this special day. An open-air dewan(assembly) was held. A small tent was pitched on a small hill now called Kesgarh Sahib. Sangat was waiting eagerly to have Guru Darshan.
After a long wait Guru Sahib came, drew his sword, and in a thundering voice said, “My sword is thirsty for blood, is there anyone who can offer his blood ?” This was a most unusual call, never expected from Guru Sahib, who used to love his Sikhs more than his own children. It caused terror in the gathering and made people stunned. There was dead silence. The Guru made a second call. Nobody came forward. There was still more silence. On the third call there rose Daya Ram, a Khatri of Lahore who said,” O true king, my head is at thy service.” The Guru took Daya Ram by the arm and led him inside the tent. A blow and thud were heard. Then the Guru, with his sword dripping with blood, came out and said,” I want another head, is there anyone who can offer?” He again said and uttered his demand thrice. There were many who out of fear left Darbar, Upon this, some people in the assembly remarked that the Guru had lost all reason and went to his mother, Mata Gujri to complain. After the third call Daya Singh got-up and presented his head to Guru sahib. Turn by turn, he made repeated five calls and the drama ends with five Sikhs and these were Daya Ram, a Khatri of Lahore, Dharam Das, a Jat from Delhi Mohkam Chand, a calico printer/tailor of Dwarka (west coast of India) Himmat Chand, a cook of Jagan Nath Puri, Sahib Chand, a barber of Bidar (in central India), The last time he stayed longer in the tent. People thought that he might have realized what he has done and were in relief.
After a long wait, The Guru Sahib brought his five Sikhs with a glowing face, in splendid garments and arms who had offered their heads to the Guru. Guru Gobind Singh then put water into an iron bowl, By this time Mata Jeeto had also arrived on the scene after the complaint by some Sikhs and put patase (sugur) which incidentally she had in the corner of her dupata, and stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit (“nectar”) with reciting bani from the Adi Granth. He stood up and administered this to five disciples to make them a warrior community. The sacred Amrit (nectar) was given five palmfuls to each of them to drink and five times to sprinkle on their head asking them to repeat aloud with each sprinkle, “Waheguru Ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.” (Khalsa Fauz belongs to God ) After that, he asked them to sip Amrit from the same bowl to signify their initiation into the casteless fraternity of the Khalsa.
All the five faithful were baptized in this way by the Guru who then called the ‘PANJ PYARE’ or Five Beloved Ones. He gave them the appellation of Singhs (Lions) and they were named from Daya Ram to Daya Singh, Dharam Das to Dharam Singh, Mohkam Chand to Mohkam Singh, Himmat Chand to Himmat Singh, and Sahib Chand to Sahib Singh. The Guru then addressed them as the supreme, the liberated ones, pure ones and he had given them the status of KHALSA. He has given them his name, their home as Anandpur Sahib. They had the experience of complete rebirth and liberated them from their previous famly ties ,dharm ,karm, kirt, creed, varun, caste, rituals everything- the complete new birth. They have become the children of Guru Gobind Singh and Mata Sahib Devan. (the Khitab of the mother of the Khalsa was given to Mata Sahib Devan after a year in 1700)
He has given punj piyaras, his own self, his name, his fame, Anandpur Sahib as their residence, and everything. which could be given to the children. He said “The Khalsa is me and I am the Khalsa both in flesh and spirit with no difference.He then ordained them to follow 5 principles :1. Kesh – unshorn hair which represents the natural appearance of sainthood. 2. Kanga– A comb to clean the hair.3. Kachha – An underwear to indicate virtuous character.4. Kara – A Iron bracelet on the wrist, a symbol of dedication to the Divine Bridegroom and to save from the var.5. Kirpan – A sword symbolizing dignity, power, and unconquerable spirit. He prohibited four things. 1.Not to use Tobacco or other intoxicants.2. Not to eat or touch Kuttha (Halal or Kosher) meat of an animal Not to commit adultery- ‘Par nari ki sej, bhul supne hun na jayo’ (never enjoy, even in a dream, the bed of a woman other than your own wife)4. They must not worship idols, cemeteries, or cremation grounds, and must believe only in One Immortal God.
THE MASTER BECOMES THE DISCIPLE
After the Guru had administered Amrit to his Five Beloved Ones, he stood up in supplication and with folded hands, begged them to baptize him in the same way as he had baptized them.
ਏਕ ਪਿਤਾ ਏਕਸ ਕੇ ਹਮ ਬਾਰਿਕ“
This was the height of this remarkable episode setting up an unparallel example in the world that first as Guru, he created the Khalsa blessing them with power, supremacy, and glory, and then he himself became their disciple- Wonderful is Guru Gobind Singh, himself the Master and himself the disciple. In the annals of human history, a disciple could become a Guru but never a Guru became a disciple. Accordingly, the Five Beloved Ones baptized the Guru with the same ceremonies and injunctions he himself had employed. The Guru was then named Gobind Singh instead of Gobind Rai. The Guru promised the Five Beloved Ones (The Khalsa) that whenever they order me as a Guru -want me as a sevak I will obey This was the establishment of democratic Khalsa. The Guru fulfilled this promise by submitting to the demand of the Five Beloved Ones at the battle of Chamkaur and left the Garhi.
After about 80,000 men and women were baptized within a few days at Anandpur. “The creation of the Khalsa was the greatest work of the Guru. He created a type of superman, a universal man of God, casteless and the country less. The Guru regarded himself as the servant of the Khalsa. He said, “To serve them pleases me the most; no other service is so dear to my soul.” The Khalsa was the spearhead of resistance against tyranny.” (Miss Pearl, S. Buck)
Here he also declared that in the future each of his arrows tipped with gold worth rupees 16 in case it found a target in a poor soldier, He can have treatment with this money and in case he dies, it will provide some support to his family.
POST-KHALSA PERIOD ACTIVITIES
The creation of the Khalsa and their transformation into the military race had far-reaching effects. This was the churning within the large body of Sikhs. Most of the peasants, low in the hierarchy of caste, have for centuries denied a respectable position in society as per Manu’s social system based on jat-pat which Khalsa clearly and firmly rejected, distinctions based on caste, creed, and wealth. With the birth of Khalsa, the Sikhs clearly and unabashedly became military equally to Rajpoots.. The sweepers, the barbers, the confectioners, who were never allowed to have knives, who have served as slaves became under the stimulative leadership of Guru Gobind Singh, doughty warriors, became fearless, ready to rush into the jaws of death at the bidding of the Guru. Within a few months of the momentous baptism ceremony, military drills and war exercises became an everyday affair in Anandpur Sahib and the echo of drums, command, and practice gunfire became common. On hola Mahala in March, choose the day for final rehearsals of mock battles between various army formations to test their strategies in war, for which Khalsa used to do the practice almost the whole year.Guru Sahib make them realize that equality and rights are to be snatched from the power if they don’t give peacefully
ਕੋਊ ਕਿਸੀ ਕੋ ਰਾਜ ਨ ਦੈਹੈ।
ਜੋ ਲੈਹੈ ਨਿਜ ਬਲ ਸਿਉ ਲੈਹੈ।।
Bhai Nand Lal ji was so impressed with the foundation of Khalsa that he asked Guru Sahib,’ I also wish to have Amrit and become Singh, have sword and work as the security Guard of my Guru”. Guru sahib gave him klam (pen) and said” this is much powerful than the sword and it should be used to teach good deeds, Dharm, Nam Simran and good character of everyone. This is my order for you. When Mughal fauj encircled Anandpur Sahib then Guru Gobind Singh sent him back to Multan
The creation of the Khalsa created a sense of unity among the Sikhs and their supporters. The continuous gatherings at Anandpur sahib and the presence of many thousands of the congregation, some armed with fierce weapons caused an alarm and anguish with the surrounding hill Rajas. especially caste-ridden Rajput chiefs of the Sivalik hills.
By this time Bhim Chand died and his son Ajmer Chand who has taken over was equally an opponent of this dharmic wave of Guru Gobind Singh. He heard so many activities of Guru Sahib which were objectionable as per his thinking. On the pretext of having darshan of Guru Sahib, he came to Anandpur Sahib. When he saw khalsa panth in shashtars , he was taken aback asked Guru Sahib the reason of starting this wave. Guru Sahib said that Muslims are doing atrocities against the Hindus because they are weak. You have 1/3 land of India, have people, power, money, hathi ghode. asla, army. Why don’t you have Amrit and become the strength of these people. Your strength will be an encouragement for these people to come out from the clutches of their slavery. It was the duty of you people,rajas and maharajas to protect your janta. Since you people are not united and the parja does not have power, courage, or unity. So we faqeers have to do this job.
Rajas asked Guru Sahib that in religion you need to have mercy but in war, it is just opposite how two things can go together. You have abolished our dhoti, tikka, and janew, you have abolished the concept of discrimination between castes, abolished choka, started langar to eat together, drink Amrit from one bata, prohibited to cut hairs, It is difficult for us to accept. You let remain all these things which our pandit says, then we can think of becoming Sikhs. Guru Sahib told them their inheritance. ” think of your origin, Rajputs were made from agni kund on the basis of their choice, not on the basis of their caste. The caste system has ruined our country, ruined the spirit of the organization of the country. It is your own country even then u are leading a life like slaves.
Rajas felt what Guru Gobind Singh Ji is saying is not wrong, but their, pride, their comforts, their shano shaukat was much more important for them than the welfare of their people. They thought from the heart of heart, hell with these low-caste people, they can not dare to lift sword before us. We have never allowed them to hold even a knife, never allowed them to sit on the horse, these slaves, how can they dare to even stand before us. So it is better to be with Hkoomat which is much more powerful than the Guru
EXPEDITION OF ALAF KHAN
Emperor Aurangzeb took many years in suppressing the revolt in southern India. All the expenditure of such a long war was met by levying heavy tribute on the northern and eastern provinces of the country. Mian Khan, the viceroy of Jammu sent his commander-in-chief, Alaf Khan to pay the taxes levied on the hill Rajas. Bhim Chand, the raja in the biggest position did not want to give it but fight and that was only possible with the help of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Upon this Bhim Chand sent a sorry message through his wazir, The Guru agreed to support the movement of non-payment of tributes which symbolized the spirit of defiance against the Mughal imperialism. Alif Khan and his men fled and Bhim Chand won the battle. Bhim Chand brought valuable gifts to thank Guru sahib. He remained at Nadaun for sometimes
Dilawar Khan who attained power in Punjab while Aurangzeb was in the Deccan (south), became jealous about Guru’s fame and success. He sent his son Khanzada with a force of one thousand men to curb the power of the Guru at Anandpur. Khanzada crossed the river Satluj under the cover of the darkness at about midnight when Guru Sahib got information about the approach of a hostile force. The drum (Ranjit Nagara) was immediately beaten and Guru’s men at once marched to the river. The quick formation of the Sikhs bewildered the enemy and the guns which began discharging volleys of shots terrified Khanzada’s men so much that they were constrained to reel back.
After the failure of Khanzada provoked Dilawar Khan to plan for a bigger attack on the Guru Sahib Hussaini a slave of Dilawar Khan boasted that if he were given a command, he would sack the Guru’s city of Anandpur and extract tribute from Bhim Chand and other hilly Rajas. Dilawar Khan sent him to Anandpur Sahib to attack Guru Sahib. In the way, he attacked Phahadi Rajas to get lagan. Phadi rajas, out of fear submitted his supremacy and agreed to attack Guru Gobind Singh Ji, But at the time of giving lagan, some truffle arose between them in which Raja Kirpal of Kangra and Husaini with all their companions died. When Dilawar Khan came to know about the death of Hussaini, he sent Sardar Jhujhar Singh, who also died. So the battle was over before starting and Shahi Sena ran away to Lahore.
The defeat of the imperial forces caused anxiety to Aurangzeb and he sent his son Prince Muazzam, later known as Bahadur Shah, for the restoration of order in the hills. The Prince took charge in August 1696 and deputed Mirza Beg to teach a lesson to hill Rajas. He inflicted defeat after defeat, set up villages on fire, plundered the territory. Bahadur Shah heard a lot about Guru Sahib and maintained peaceful relations with him.
FIRST BATTLE OF ANANDPUR
After this defeat, the hill Rajas thought it highly dangerous to allow the Sikhs to increase in number and power. They, therefore, decided collectively to complain to the Delhi government against the Sikhs. Aurangzeb was still busy in the south. The viceroy of Delhi sent General Din Beg and General Painde Khan each with five thousand men to resist the Guru’s encroachments on the rights of the hill Rajas.
General Painde Khan seeing the determined resistance of the Sikhs, shouted to his men to fight to the death against the infidels. He came forward to engage in single combat with the Guru and invited him to strike the first blow. The Guru refused the role of an aggressor and claimed that he had vowed never to strike except in self-defense and given him three chances to attack. Upon this Painde Khan discharged an arrow which whizzed past Guru’s ear. He charged another arrow which also missed the mark. Now was the turn of Guru Sahib. The whole of Painde Khan’s body except his ears was encased in armor. Knowing this the Guru then discharged an arrow at his ear with such an unerring aim that he fell off from his horse on the ground and never rose again. The hill chiefs left the field. This battle was fought in the beginning of 1701.
SECOND BATTLE OF ANANDPUR
The Rajas of Jammu, Nurpur, Mandi, Bhutan, Kullu, Kionthal, Guler, Chamba, Srinagar, Dadhwal, Handur, and others, assembled at Bilaspur to discuss the newly created situation. Raja Ajmer Chand of Kahloor suggested that if they overlooked the growing power of the Guru, he would one day drive them out from their territories. On the other hand, if they seek assistance from Delhi again and again, they might be taken over by the Mughal empire forever. It was, therefore, decided that they must unite and defend themselves. to annihilate the Guru and his Sikhs.
Accordingly, all the Rajas brought their contingents and marched towards Anandpur. A large number of Ranghars and Gujars under the command of Jagatullah flocked to the side of the hill Rajas. The hill Rajas opened fire with large guns on the Guru’s fortress. Several brave Sikhs made a determined stand against the enemy and forced them to retreat. Jagatullah was shot dead. Raja Ghumand Chand with other hill chiefs was in great dismay and had decided to reconcile but Kesari Chand of Jaswal opposed the reconciliation and promised to fight with more determination to oust the Guru from Anandpur. Raja Kesari Chand intoxicated an elephant to break the entrance gate of the quilla. An elephant covered with iron sheets was directed towards the gate of Lohgarh fort The Guru blessed his Sikh, Vichitar Singh to combat the elephant. He raised his lance and drove it through the elephant’s head armor. On this, the animal turned around on the hill soldiers and killed several of them. Meanwhile, Ude Singh continued to advance against Kesari Chand, and with one blow cut off his head. What remained of the hill army now fled. On the following day, Ghumand Chand of Kangra directed the efforts of his troops against the city and was severely wounded and the army left the battlefield.
BATTLE OF NIRMOH
Now Ajmer Chand sent an envoy to the Emperor’s viceroy in Sirhind and another envoy to the viceroy of Delhi to complain against the Sikhs and sought their help to assist the hill chiefs in destroying the Guru’s power and expelling him from Anandpur. At the same time the hill chiefs proposed to the Guru through Pamma Brahman, that they would be friends forever if only for the time being, he leaves Anandpur and may come back later at any time to save our prestige. The Guru agreed to the proposal and left for Nirmoh, a village situated about a mile from Kiratpur. After he reached Nirmoh, Raja Ajmer Chand and Raja of Kangra both thought that since he was now in the open, it would be better to launch an attack. They did so but they missed the ball and could not harm Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib could forseek the intentions of Phadi Rajas.
One afternoon as the Guru was sitting in his open court, the hill chiefs engaged a Muslim gunner to kill him for adequate remuneration. The gunner fired a cannonball which missed the Guru but took away the life of the Sikh who was fanning The Guru picked up his bow and shot an arrow which killed the gunner and his brother, who was assisting him. The two were buried on the spot called Siyah Tibbi or the black hill and a Gurdwara was erected by the Sikhs to commemorate Guru’s escape from the bullet.
The army of Wazir Khan, the viceroy of Sirhind, arrived in due time. The Guru found himself in a very dangerous position between the hill Rajas on one hand, and the imperial army on the other. But The Guru was successfully protected by his son Ajit Singh and his other brave warriors. They stopped the advancement of the imperial forces and cut them down in rows. The next day the imperial army and the hill chiefs made a furious assault when the Guru decided on retiring to Basoli. Until the Guru’s army reached the river Satluj, fierce fighting continued in which brave Sahib Singh became shheed. The Guru with his troops crossed over the river and reached Basoli. and was received by the Raja with great enthusiasm.
Daya Singh and Ude Singh requested the Guru to return to Anandpur. After staying a few days at Basoli, he marched back to Anandpur and the inhabitants of the city were delighted to see him again among them. Now Raja Ajmer Chand thought it is wise to pursue peace. The Guru told Ajmer Chand that he was willing to come to terms with him, but he would be punished if again found guilty of treachery. After this, the Guru went to Malwa for the propagation of his mission. In January 1703 he went to a fair held at Kurukshetra on the occasion of a solar eclipse in order to purchase horses to replace those which were killed or stolen in previous warfare.
Two Mohammadan generals, Saiyad Beg and Alif Khan, were on their way from Lahore to Delhi. Raja Ajmer Chand who also went to Kurukshetra along with other hill chiefs thought to secure their assistance. He promised the generals large remuneration if they attacked the Guru. When Saiyad Beg saw the Guru, he was so much mesmerized that he withdrew his army, became his disciple and when the battle ensued at Chamkaur between the Guru’s and Alif Khan’s troops, he joined the Guru’s forces. and remained with him as a trustworthy and powerful ally.
After two years of peace, the old hostilities reappeared. They hence rallied under the leadership of the Raja of Bilaspur, to forcibly evict Guru Gobind Singh from his hilly citadel. Their repeated expeditions during 1700-04 however proved abortive. The Khalsa forces were too strong to be dealt with by the hill Rajas. They, at last, petitioned Emperor Aurangzeb for help. In concert with contingents sent under imperial orders by the governor of Lahore and those of the faujdar of Sirhind, they marched upon Anandpur and laid a siege to the fort in May 1705.
Guru had about 11000 fauz whereas the combined army of Moughal and Phadi raje was about 1,50000 +gujar and rangars. Guru Sahib made groups of 500-500 jawans and installed on five forts and the rest of the jawans he has kept under his protection. Shahi fauz with the fauz of Phadi rajas encircled Anandpur. The jaikare and the signal of Guns of Sikhs were so loud that the enemy got scared. After watching such condition of his army, Mughals had invented a new scheme to make Sikh fauz die of hunger and they have close all the passages where Sikh can go and have rasad -Paani. Whatever eatable sman the Sikh army had in the quilla, it was almost finished many fauzi as well as haathi, ghode died of hunger. At last, they made 100-100 jathas and started to loot Moughals Rasad. Some killed Mughal fauz, some were killed, and some bring whatever they came across. This was also one of the reasons that Sikh fauz was reducing day by day, but in Mughals, as many fauzi killed, the double quantity was added.
Over the months, the Guru and his Sikhs firmly withstood their successive assaults despite insufficient amounts of food resulting from the prolonged blockade. While the besieged (Sikhs) were reduced to desperate straits, the besiegers too were exhausted at the courage of the Sikhs. At this stage the besiegers offered, on Oath (promise) of the Qur’an, to give safe exit to the Sikhs if they quit Anandpur. Guru Sahib never wanted to vacate but watching the situation, He agreed. At last, the town was evacuated during the night of December 1705. But as the Guru and his Sikhs came out, the hill monarchs and their Mughal allies set upon them in full fury.
In utter confusion, many Sikhs were killed and all of the Guru’s baggage, including most of the precious manuscripts, was lost. The Guru himself was able to make his way to Chamkaur, 40 km southwest of Anandpur, with barely 40 Sikhs and his two elder sons. There the imperial army, following closely on his heels, caught up with him. His two sons, Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh, and all but five of the Sikhs fell in the action that took place on 7 December 1705. The five surviving Sikhs commanded the Guru to save himself in order to reconsolidate the Khalsa. Guru Sahib has to obey the order of Panj Piyare as he himself gave them the power to order. Guru Gobind Singh with three of his Sikhs escaped into the wilderness of the Malva, two of his Muslim devotees, Gani Khan and Nabi Khan, helping him at great personal risk.
BATTLE OF CHAMKAUR
The imperial army which was in hot pursuit besieged the fortress. They were joined by the hill chiefs and the Ranghars and the Gujars. The Guru appointed eight men to guard each of the four walls. Two Sikhs held the door and the other two were appointed sentinels. The Guru himself, his two sons; and Daya Singh and Sant Singh went on the top storet. The Sikhs held the fortress for a long time against the heavy odds. Nahar Khan and Ghairat Khan, the two imperial officers, attempted to scale the little fort but were shot down by the Guru. After that none of the Muslim officers dared to attempt the fatal ascent. 5-5 Sikhs in batches went forth to contend with the enemy of more than 1000000 After fighting with great bravery, they were killed. Guru’s eldest son, Ajit Singh asked permission to go forth and fight the enemy. The Guru approved and Ajit Singh went with five Sikh heroes. He performed prodigies of valor and ultimately fell, fighting bravely along with his companions. On seeing his brother’s fate, Jujhar Singh (14 years old) could not restrain himself and asked his father’s permission. Like his elder brother, Jujhar Singh went in the battlefield, but after a little while, he turned back and asked for water. The Guru shouted,” Go back, there is no more water left for you on this earth. See yonder, Ajit Singh is holding the cup of nectar for you.” Jujhar Singh went back and created havoc upon the enemy and fell fighting valiantly. Upon this the Guru’s face was jubilant. His expression of mental composure showed a glow of divinity upon the glorious end of his sons.
After the sons had achieved their splendid mission, the Guru then got ready to go out and fight. The remaining few Sikhs fell on their knees before him and entreated him not to go. At that moment their victory lay in saving the Guru. If he lived, they argued, he would create millions like them. They, therefore, persuaded the Guru to leave the place but he would not listen to them. At that point, Bhai Daya Singh who was the first of the Five Beloved Ones, recalled that at the time of the creation of the Khalsa, the Guru had promised that the mandate of the Five Beloved Sikhs would be binding even upon the Guru. Upon this Bhai Daya Singh took four other Sikhs and formed an assembly which passed a ‘Gurmata’ (resolution) and said,” O true king, the Khalsa now orders you to leave this place.” As promised at the time of administering Amrit to the Five Beloved Ones, the wonderful supreme lord Guru Gobind Singh submitted before the Khalsa and accepted their verdict to leave the Garhi (fortress).
Sant Singh and Sangat Singh offered to remain in the fort while Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, and Man Singh were determined to accompany the Guru. It is said that Sant Singh very much resembled the Guru. Therefore he gave his plume to Sant Singh, clothed him in his armor and seated him in the upper room where Guru was stationed. He and three of his companions escaped during the night. He told them that if perchance they were separated from him, they were to go in the direction of a particular star which he showed to them. It was a cold night of December and the allied armies were resting in their tents. The Guru decided to awaken the enemy, lest they should think that he absconded. He discharged two arrows on the Turkish sentries. The arrows first struck torches which they held in their hands and then they passed through their bodies. In the darkness which followed the extinction of the torches, the Guru and his three companions escaped. A little far outside, he clapped his hands and shouted aloud,’ Guru is leaving if anyone wanted to capture him, should try”.
The Sikhs who were left behind inflicted great loss on the enemy. The Muslims, at last, we’re able to scale the building and they believed that they were going to capture the Guru. They were greatly disappointed to subsequently learn that the person who was wearing plume and armor, was not the Guru but he was Sangat Singh and that the Guru had escaped. The allied armies retreated to their respective places. Wazir Khan sent orders in all directions of his areas that anyone who offered aid to the Guru, would be severely punished, and the one who captured him or gave his whereabouts would be greatly rewarded.
After leaving the Garhi, he proceeded barefooted on his journey alone and reached the thorny wilds of Machhiwara, a place between Rupar and Ludhiana. Thirst, hunger, and fatigue overtook him. His feet were blistered. When he reached a garden he rested his head on a heap of earth and slept after the Shabad he sang.
ਮਿਤਰ ਪਿਯਾਰੇ ਨੂ ਹਾਲ ਮੁਰੀਦਾ ਦਾ ਕਹਿਣਾ , ਯਾਰੜੇ ਦਾ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਸਥਰ ਚੰਗਾ ਭਠ ਖੇੜ੍ਹਿਆਂ ਦਾ ਰਹਿਣਾ
While he was resting in the garden, his three companions, Daya Singh, Dharam Singh and Man Singh reached and rejoined him. The situation was very grave because the enemy was in hot pursuit of the Guru. Gulaba, an old Masand of Machhiwara, took him and his three companions to his home, but soon he got frightened and feared for his own safety if the Guru stayed with him. At this juncture, two Pathan horse merchants, Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan, who were old acquaintances of the Guru, came and chose to risk their lives for the service of the Guru. There lived a Sikh woman in the village who had spun and weaved cloth for the Guru and had vowed to keep it until his arrival in the village. The Guru had the cloth dyed blue and a robe was made from it in imitation of the attire of Mohammadan pilgrims. He wore the blue robe and then departed from Gulaba’s village. He was carried in a litter by Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan in front, and Dharam Singh and Man Singh in the rear, while Daya Singh waved a chauri over him. They told all inquirers that they were escorting Uch da Pir or a high priest. Since Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan were very famous horse merchants in the area, people believed them.
From there they reached Ghangharali village and then Lal. At the village Lal which is about five miles from Doraha in Ludhiana district, a military officer had some doubts and he made searching inquiries. Pir Mohammad of Nurpur who was known to the Guru was asked to identify the occupant of the litter. He confirmed that he was really Uch da Pir, upon which the officer let the Guru go. From Lal he visited Katana and then Kanoch where Masand Fateh put him off with excuses and did not let him stay. From there he reached Alam Gir. Here, Nand Lal, a Zamindar presented a horse to the Guru, thereby enabling him to change from litter to horse. The situation became easier and the Guru asked Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan to return home, after giving them a letter of appreciation (Hukam Nama) recommending them for the consideration of the faithful. Pir Mohammad was also honored with such a letter of appreciation. From Alam Gir, he advanced on horseback in the direction of Rai Kot. At Silaoni the chief of Rai Kot, Rai Kalla who was Guru’s devotee and a close relative of Nihang Khan of Kotla Nihang, waited upon him and took him to Rai Kot. Here Nura Mahi brought the news from Sirhind about Guru’s younger sons.
Guru Gobind Singh reached Dina in the heart of the Malva. There he enlisted a few hundred warriors of the Brar clan, and also composed his famous letter, Zafarnamah (the Epistle of Victory), in Persian verse, addressed to Emperor Aurangzeb. The letter was a severe indictment of the Emperor and his commanders who had broken their oath. Two of the Sikhs, Daya Singh and Dharam Singh, were despatched with the Zafarnamah to Ahmadnagar in the South to deliver it to Aurangzeb, From Dina, Guru Gobind Singh continued his westward march until, finding the host close upon his heels; he took position beside the water pool of Khidrana to make a last-ditch stand.
Saka Sirhind narrated by Noora Mahi
During the catastrophe that befell in crossing the flooded Sarsa river, the companions of the Guru and his family were scattered in different directions. . Mata Sundri and Mata Sahib Kaur and their female attendant, Bhai Sahib Singh brother of Mata Sahib Kaur, Dhana Singh, Jawahar Singh, and Bhai Mani Singh astrayed towards Delhi. Mata Gujri with two younger grandsons, accompanied Guru family’s old cook, Gangoo, a Kashmiri Brahmin, proceeded towards his village, Sahari near Morinda. Guru Gobind Singh with two elder Sahibzadas, 5 Panj Piaras, and 40 Sikhs proceeded towards Chamkaur and reached in the afternoon of 21 December. When Gangu saw a bag of gold mohars with Mata Gujri, he got tempted and stole it at midnight. When in the morning Mata Gujri asked for that bag, He started shouting Chor Chor, Mata Gujri knew that nobody except Gangu came into their room at midnight. Mata Gujri ji asked Gangu to keep quiet, but he out of fear of the consequences handed three of them to Moughal Kotwat of Morinda, Saheri .who ultimately informed Suba Sirhind. Suba Sirhind was really happy as he failed in catching Guru Gobind Singh Sahib, thought let it be his sons., arrested them with Mata Gujri kept the roof of cold Burj-to torture them.
A farcical trial began, in the Kacheri of Suba Sirhind which lasted for three days. Suba Sirhind reflected that if the children convert their religion it would be a glory to his faith- Islam. He tried to tempt them to which they replied, “O viceroy, our grand and great grandfather have sacrificed their lives rather than changing their religion I spurn your religion and will not part with my own. It is better that you do you not seek to tempt us and keep your offers with yourself”. At that time, outspoke Nawab Sher Mohammad Khan of Maler Kotla also opposed Wazeer Khan. When every effort failed to convert the children to Islam, it was finally ordered that they should be bricked alive in the wall.
On 27 December 1704, a heinous and cold-blooded crime was committed in the Sarzameen of Sirhind. Guru Gobind Singh’s two younger sons, Baba Fateh Singh and Baba Zorawar Singh aged 7 and 9 years were bricked alive and later killed in the presence of the Assembly of Shaitans, presided over by Suba Sirhind, Wazir Khan, and thrown their dead bodies nearby. When Mata Gujri Ji heard about this heinous crime, she also fell from the roof of cold Burj. Todar Mal, a rich Hindus merchant cremated the bodies of all three, who bought ground for their final rites and cremation by covering standing gold mohrs on the land required, where Joyti Saroop Gurudwara was made by the Sikhs later on..
As Nura Mahi narrated the tale of woes, Rai Kalla and other listeners were torn with grief and wept bitterly. The Guru was unruffled and remained as composed as ever. When Mahi finished his distressing story, the Guru thanked God for the glorious and triumphant end of his sons. He then addressed to the Almighty,” O God, Thou gavest me father, mother, and four sons. They were all Thy trust to me. Today I have been successful and happy in restoring that entire trust back to Thee.” While the Guru was listening to Mahi’s story, he was digging up a shrub. He then pronounced, “As I dig up this shrub by the roots, so shall the Turks be extirpated.”
The Guru stayed at Dina for some days. It was here that he wrote ‘Zafarnama’, or Persian epistle to Emperor Aurangzeb, The letter was sent through Bhai Daya Singh and Dharam Singh to the Emperor and they delivered it to him in Deccan. This letter awakened the Emperor’s dormant conscience and evoked in him a sense of true repentance and after that, He circulated a Hukumnama that” wherever Guru Sahib is, nobody should harm him”. In Dina, a devoted Sikh Rama presented the Guru with an excellent horse. His arrival soon became known to the people of the area and they began to rally around him. Some of the influential people who met the Guru at Dina were Shamira, Lakhmira and Takhat Mal, grandsons of Jodha Rai who had rendered material assistance to Guru Har Gobind in the battle of Gurusar. When Sooba of Sirhind became to know that the Guru was entertained by Shamira and his brothers. He wrote to Shamira and ordered to arrest him. Shamira replied that he is our Guru and we can not do that. Shamira however, feared that Suba Sirhind might send his troops to arrest the Guru, so he told Guru Sahib that here u r not safe
.He left Dina and visited many places such as Bander, Bargarh, Baihbal, and Saravan and after a little stay proceeded to Jaito, Kotla Maluk Das, Lambhawali and reached Kot Kapura . Realizing that the pursuing enemy, Suba Sarhind had come too near, the Guru asked Chaudhri Kapura, a Brar Jat, to lend the use of his fort to him for a few days. Fearing the wrath of the Mughals, he refused to oblige him. From there the Guru reached Dhilwan Sodhian where one of his relatives received him with great warmth and cordiality. It was here, that Prithi Chand’s descendants, Kaul visited the Guru and presented him clothes. The Guru took off his blue robe which he had been wearing since he left Machhiwara, and tearing it piece by piece burned it in fire uttering,’ The rule of Turks and Pathans is burning”. Chaudhry Kapura being repentant of his disgraceful act asked Guru for his forgiveness and gave him a good guide to fighting near Khidrana dhab. Guru marched westward in the direction of Dhab Khidrana.
Here came 40 Sikhs who deserted Guru Sahib during the long besieged of Anandpur Sahib and gave “Bedava” (disclaimer) and returned to their homes but when they reached home, instead of welcome they received cold behavior from their wives as they left Guru in his difficult time and made them realize of the grave mistake they have done. They decided to come back to reinforce the Guru’s small army under the leadership of Mai Bhago and Bhai Mahan Singh. They reached search of Guru Sahib near Khidrana, where Guru Sahib had taken up his position on a sandy hillock at Khidrana in the district of Ferozepur. When they heard that the fauz of Suba Sirhind is approaching Guru Sahib, they decided to stop them midway to check the enemy’s advancement towards the Guru’s position. It was 29th Dec.1705 when 40 Sikhs fought the toughest fight with them, which was never experienced by Mughal commanders before in their life. They were so much exhausted that in search of water they had to retire in defeat. All the Sikhs became shheed except Mai Bhago. Mahan Singh who was on the last breath of his life begged Guru Sahib to torn Bedawa which was given to Guru Sahib while leaving Anandpur Sahib. The Guru blessed the 40 dead as 40 mukte, i.e. the 40 Saved Ones. The site is now marked by a sacred shrine and tank and the town which has grown around them is called Muktsar, the Pool of Liberations. Mai Bhago remained with Khalsa Panth of Guru Sahib and served till jyoti jyot of Guru Sahib.
By this time all restrictions against the Guru by the Mughal government had been removed. On receipt of Zafarnama, the governors had been ordered by Aurangzeb to cease all molesting activities against him. It was here that the Guru’s wife joined him. When she arrived, he was seated in a big gathering of his disciples. Addressing the Master, she ask.’ Where are my sons” Guru Sahib said.’
“What then if thy four are gone?
Millions of our dear brave sons.”They yet live, and shall ever live- the Khalsa,
iਇਨ ਪੁਤਰਾਂ ਕੇ ਸੀਸ ਪੈ ਵਾਰ ਦੀਏ ਸੁਤ ਚਾਰ
ਚਾਰ ਮੁਏ ਤੋ ਕਿਯਾ ਹੁਆ ਜੀਵਤ ਕਈ ਹਜ਼ਾਰ
From Mukatsar the Guru moved to Rupana, Bhander, Gurusar, Thehri Bambiha, Rohila, Jangiana and Bhai Ka Kot. Then he proceeded to Chatiana where Brars who had fought for him demanded the arrears of their pay under threat of blocking his onwards march. By the grace of God it so happened that a Sikh from the neighborhood brought enough money as bheta which enabled the Guru to pay off all the arrears. However the leader of the Brars, Chaudhri Dana was extremely sorry for the arrogant behavior of his people and refused to accept any payment for himself. On the request of Chaudhri Dana, the Guru then went to his native place Mehma Swai. Reaching there he encamped at a place which is now called Lakhisahr. From there he visited other places in the vicinity. At the request of Chaudhry Dalla, the Guru then decided to move to Talwandi Sabo. On his way, he passed through Chatiana, Kot Sahib Chand, Kot Bhai, Giddarbaha, Rohila, Jangirana, Bambiha, Bajak, Kaljhirani, Jassi Bagwali, Pakka Kalan and Chak Hira Singh, and reached Talwandi Sabo now called Damdama Sahib. This place appealed to the Guru so much that he assumed a permanent residence there and lived at this place for nine months and nine days.
Guru. had laid abiding foundations of Sikhism in the Malwa tract. The Guru’s Darbar here was as splendid as it used to be at Anandpur. Quite a large number of poets and scholars gathered around in his court, which resulted in Damdma Sahib became a famous educational center. The Guru also reorganized his forces. His strength had increased considerably. Besides regular followers, he had also taken some Dogras and Brars into his service.
After spending some time in the Lakkhi Jungle, Guru Gobind Singh arrived at Talwandi Sabo, now called Damdama Sahib, on 20 January 1706. During his stay there of over nine months, a number of Sikhs rejoined him. Here He sent for the Adi Granth from Kartarpur near Beas, which was with the descendants of Dheermals, in order to incorporate Guru Tegh Bahadur’s hymns but they did not give and refused to part with it. Guru Sahib prepared a fresh text of Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, with the celebrated scholar, Bhai Mani Singh, who wrote the Guru’s bani. As the result, this place came to be known as the Guru ki Kashi-seat of learning. This Bir was installed at Hari Mandar Sahib but it is not available now. It is not known whether it has been destroyed or taken away by Ahmed Shah Abdali when he plundered the town of Amritsar during one of his raids. The order of the Nirmala Sikhs was also created here with a view of giving the Sikhs a band of the Sikhs exclusively devoted to the study and preaching of the Sikh faith.
Zafarnama sent by Guru Gobind Singh from Dina seems to have touched the heart of Emperor Aurungzeb. He forthwith invited him for a meeting. According to history, the Emperor had a letter written to the deputy governor of Lahore, Munim Khan, to conciliate the Guru and make the required arrangements for his journey to the Deccan. Guru Gobind Singh had, however, already left for the South on 30 October 1706. He was in the neighborhood of Baghor, in Rajasthan, when the news arrived of the death of the Emperor at Ahmadnagar on 20 February 1707. Here he met Bhai Daya Singh and Dharam Singh who returned from their official mission with Aurangzeb.
The Guru there upon decided to return to Punjab, via Shahjahanabad (Delhi). That was the time when the sons of the deceased Emperor were preparing to contest succession Bhai Nand Lal had once served prince Bahadur Shah as a tutor of Farsi. Bahadur Shah, therefore, sought the Guru’s help with the promise that he would be fair and just to the Hindus and Muslims alike and undo all the wrongs that his father had done to them. So the Guru helped him with his men in the battle of Jaju in which Bahadur Shah became victorious. Bahadur Shah invited him to Agra where he was honored by the royal robe of honor on July 24, 1707.
Immediately after attaining takhat, Emperor Bahadur Shah had to move against the Kachhvaha Rajputs of Amber and then to the Deccan where his youngest brother, Kam Baksh, had raised the standard of revolt. Bahadur Shah asked the Guru Sahib to accompany him The two camps crossed the River Tapti in June 1708 and the Ban-Ganga, arriving at Nanded, on the Godavari, towards the end of August. It seems Bhadur Shah though committed but not seemed much interested to talk about Wazir of Sirhand as he was a powerful support for him.
GURU AT NADER
The Guru stayed there for many days and met Jogi Jiwan Das and Mahant Jait Ram of Dadudwara. They told the Guru about one Bairagi Madho Das and his great occult power with which he overthrows anyone sitting on his takhat. He decided to meet Bairagi Madho Das. Guru was not satisfied with Bahadur Shah’s evasive replies in making a clear decision against Wazir Khan, the viceroy of Sirhind, and other officers who are responsible for atrocities in Punjab. Accordingly, the Guru parted company with the Emperor at Hingoli and moved to Nader where he reached July 1708.
At Nader the Guru selected a lovely spot on the bank of the river Godavari where there were a lot of holy camps of Sadhus. One day Guru went to the place of Bairagi Madho Das. One day Guru Sahib but was not there. Guru took comfort in sitting on his Takht, asked Singhs to cook non-veg in the forbidden square of the Bairagi. A disciple went to inform the Bairagi of the Guru’s actions. Bairagi was mad with anger and violently moved headlong towards the Guru. He tried all his powers to hurt and overthrow him but in vain. Bairagi could forseek that this is no ordinary man. He asked Guru, who he was The Guru replied that he was Gobind Singh. Bairagi ‘s anger suddenly transformed into worship as he heard a lot about Guru Gobind Singh. The Divine Light from the Guru’s eyes dispelled all darkness from the mind of the Bairagi who immediately knelt before the Master and in total submission admitted that he was his Banda- a slave.
He had heard from the Sikhs the atrocities of the Muslim rulers in Punjab including the massacre of Guru’s innocent children, thus, became ready for any service he could perform for the Master. Upon this, the Guru instructed him to proceed to Punjab and fight the oppression of the rulers upon the Khalsa. He presented him his bow and five arrows and addressed,” As long as thou remainest continent, thy glory shall increase. He who is content, turneth not away from the combat, his opponents cannot withstand him. Once thou forsakest the Khalsa principles and associate unlawfully with woman, thy courage shall depart.” The Guru despatched some Sikhs to assist him in this enterprise. Banda took the oath and pahul, bowed, and departed.
The close connections between the Guru and Emperor Bahadur Shah had alarmed Wazir Khan, the viceroy of Sirhind. He feared that his life would be in danger if the new Emperor and the Guru came to a compromise. He, therefore, conspired a plot to kill the Guru and he sent two Pathans, Gul Khan alias Jamshed Khan, and Ata-Ullah, to assassinate him.
All kinds of people started attending the congregations of the Guru at Nader. Soon the two Pathans also started coming to the assembly which was addressed by the Guru. On the third or fourth day, Jamshed Khan found an opportunity as Guru Gobind Singh retired to his personal apartment after the evening prayer, he entered the apartment and, wounded him with a dagger. The Guru put him to death immediately, though he himself was wounded seriously. His fleeing companion was stabbed to death by a Sikh who rushed to the Guru’s place hearing the noise.
A probe into the historical circumstances leads to the Emperor’s involvement also. On October 28, 1708, the Emperor ordered that a dress of mourning be presented to the son of Jamshed Khan Afghan who had tried to kill Guru Gobind Singh but was killed by him. The imperial newsletter of Bahadur Shah’s court records shows this. , two days later on October 30, 1708, the Emperor ordered for the grant of a robe of mourning to Guru Gobind Singh’s family also. Jamshed Khan was not a high dignitary upon whom the Emperor had to bestow high honors. He was only a spy of Wazir Khan. This means that the Emperor treated Jamshed Khan and Guru Gobind Singh on equal footing. To show his diplomacy, Bhadur Shah also sent a European Surgeon for stitching his wounds which appeared to have been healed. Soon after when the Guru tugged at a hard strong bow, the imperfectly healed wound burst opened and caused profuse bleeding.
It was now clear to him that the call of Heaven had come and he, therefore, gave the last and enduring message of his mission to the assembly of the Khalsa. He placed five paise and a coco-nut before Granth Sahib and solemnly bowed to it as his SUCCESSOR, saying ‘Waheguru Ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji ki Fateh’, He walked around the Guru Granth Sahib and proclaimed, “O beloved Khalsa, let him who desireth to behold me, behold the Guru Granth. Obey the Granth Sahib. It is the visible body of the Gurus. And let him who desires to meet me, search me in the hymns.” He then sang his self-composed hymn:
“Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayo Panth
Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru manyo Granth
Guru Granth Ji manyo pargat Guran ki deh
Jo Prabhu ko milbo chahe khoj shabad mein le
Raj karega Khalsa aqi rahei na koe
Khwar hoe sabh milange bache sharan jo hoe.”
He then left for his heavenly abode. The Sikhs made preparations for his final rites as he had instructed them, the Sohila was chanted and Parsahd (sacred food) was distributed. While all were mourning the loss, a Sikh arrived and said,” You suppose that the Guru is dead. I met him this very morning riding his bay horse. After bowing to him when I asked whether he was going, he smiled and replied that he was going to the forest on a hunting excursion.”
The Sikhs who heard this statement arrived at the conclusion that it was all the Guru’s play, that he dwelt in uninterrupted bliss, that he showed himself wherever he was remembered. He who treasures even a grain of the Lord’s love in his heart is the blessed one and the Guru reveals himself to such a devotee in mysterious ways. Wherefore for such a Guru who had departed bodily to Heaven, there ought to be no mourning.
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